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Struts Interview Questions and Answers
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Struts Interview Questions and Answers



Question: 1
Explain Struts.
Answer:

Struts is open source software used to develop java based web page.

Struts uses Jakarta Packages, Java Servlets, JavaBeans, ResourceBundles, and XML
Struts takes the help of Model View Controller (MVC) architecture. Where Model is referring to business or database, View is referring to the Page Design Code, and Controller is referring to navigational code.



Question: 2
What is Struts Validator Framework?
Answer:

Struts Validator Framework enables us to validate the data of both client side and server side.

When some data validation is not present in the Validator framework, then programmer can generate own validation logic, this User Defined Validation logic can be bind with Validation Framework.
Validation Framework consist of two XML configuration Files:
Validator-Rules.xml file
Validation.xml file




Question: 3
What is the need of Struts?
Answer:

We need Struts in Java because of following reasons:

Helps in creation and maintenance of the application.
Make use of Model View Controller (MVC) architecture. Where Model is referring to business or database, View is referring to the Page Design Code, and Controller is referring to navigational code.
Enables developer to make use of Jakarta Packages, Java Servlets, JavaBeans, ResourceBundles, and XML


Question: 4
What are the classes used in Struts?
Answer:

Struts Framework consists of following classes:

Action Servlets: used to control the response for each incoming request.
Action Class: used to handle the request.
Action Form: it is java bean, used to referred to forms and associated with action mapping
Action Mapping: used for mapping between object and action.
Action Forward: used to forward the result from controller to destination.



Question: 5
How exceptions are handled in Struts application?
Answer:

Exceptions are handled in struts by using any one of the following two ways:

Programmatically handling: In this exception are handled by using try and catch block in program. Using this programmer can define how to handle the situation when exception arises.
Declarative handling: In this exception handling is done by using the XML file. Programmer defines the exception handling logic in the XML file. There are two ways of defining the exception handling logic in the XML file:
Global Action Specific Exception Handler Definition.
Local Action Specific Exception Handler Definition.


Question: 6
Describe Validate() and reset() methods
Answer:

Validate() Method: this method is used to validate the properties after they are explored by the application.

Validate method is Called before FormBean is handed to Action.
This method returns a collection of ActionError.
Syntax of Validate() Method:
public ActionErrors validate(ActionMapping mapping,HttpServletRequest request)

Reset() Method: this method is called by the Struts Framework with each request that uses the defined ActionForm.

Used to reset all the data from the ActionForm
Syntax of Reset() Method:
public void reset() {}

Question: 7
What design patterns are used in Struts?
Answer:

There are following types of design patterns are used in Struts:

Service to Worker
Dispatcher View
Composite View (Struts Tiles)
Front Controller
View Helper
Synchronizer Token

Question: 8
What is the difference between session scope and request scope when saving FormBean?
Answer:

The difference between session scope and request scope when saving FormBean are following:

In Request Scope, values of FormBean are available to current request but in Session Scope, values of FormBean are available throughout the session.


Question: 9
What is the different actions available in Struts?
Answer:

The different kinds of actions in Struts are:

ForwardAction
IncludeAction
DispatchAction
LookupDispatchAction
SwitchAction


Question: 10
What is DispatchAction?
Answer:

The DispatchAction enable the programmer to combine together related function or class.

Using Dispatch Action programmer can combine the user related action into a single UserAction. like add user, delete user and update user
DispatchAction execute the action based on the parameter value it receives from the user.


Question: 11
What is difference between LookupDispatchAction and DispatchAction?
Answer:

The difference between LookupDispatchAction and DispatchAction are given below:

LookupDispatchAction is the subclass of the DispatchAction
Actual method that gets called in LookupDispatchAction whereas DispatchAction dispatches the action based on the parameter value.

Question: 12
What is the use of ForwardAction?
Answer:

The ForwardAction is used when we want to combine Struts with existing application.

Used when we want to transfer the control form JSP to local server.
Used to integrate with struts in order to take benefit of struts functionality, without writing the Servlets again.
Use to forward a request to another resource in your application

Question: 13
What are the various Struts tag libraries?
Answer:

The various Struts tag libraries are:

HTML Tags: used to create the struts input forms and GUI of web page.
Bean Tags: used to access bean and their properties.
Logic Tags: used to perform the logical operation like comparison
Template Tags: used to changes the layout and view.
Nested Tags: used to perform the nested functionality
Tiles Tags: used to manages the tiles of the application

Question: 14
What is the life cycle of ActionForm?
Answer:

The lifecycle of ActionForm is as follows:

Retrieve or Create Form Bean associated with Action
"Store" FormBean in appropriate scope (request or session)
Reset the properties of the FormBean
Populate the properties of the FormBean
Validate the properties of the FormBean
Pass FormBean to Action

Question: 15
What are the loop holes of Struts?
Answer:

The drawbacks of Struts are following:

Absence of backward flow mechanism.
Only one single controller Servlets is used.
Bigger learning curve
Worst documentation
No exception present in this framework
Less transparent
Rigid approach.
With struts 1, embedding application into JSP can’t be prevented.
Non-XML compliance of JSP syntax


Question: 16
How to use forward action to restrict a strut application to MVC?
Answer:

We can use the ForwarAction to restrict the Struts application to Model View Controller by following coding:
Question: 17
What is struts.devMode?
Answer:

The struts.devMode is used to make sure that framework is running in development mode or production mode by setting true or false. struts.devMode is set to false in production phase to reduce impact of performance. By default it is "false". It is used because of the following reasons:

Resource Reloading: Resource bundle reload on every request
Modification: struts.xml can be modified without restarting or redeploying the application
Error Handling: The error occurs in the application will be reported, as oppose to production mode.

Question: 18
What is the difference between empty default namespace and root namespace?
Answer:

The difference between the empty default namespace and root name space are:

When namespace attribute is not defined then it is referred to as Empty Default Namespace whereas when name space attribute is assign with forward slash(/) then it is referred to as Root Name Space.
The root namespace must be matched.

Question: 19
What are action errors?
Answer:

Action error: when user or client submits the incorrect or invalid data in the application, then these errors are known as Action error.

Action errors are generated by the clients.
Action error should be determined as soon as possible.

The impacts of such Action Error are:

Wastage of server time and resources.
Negative impact on code quality.


Posted on: 2016/7/31 22:13
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Brain training may forestall dementia onset for years, new study says
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Brain training may forestall dementia onset for years, new study says


If you’re intent on keeping dementia at bay, new research suggests you’ll need more than crossword puzzles, aerobic exercise and an active social life. In a study released Sunday, researchers found that older adults who did exercises to shore up the speed at which they processed visual information could cut by nearly half their likelihood of cognitive decline or dementia over a 10-year period.

The new clinical trial results, presented Sunday at the Alzheimer’s Assn.’s International Conference in Toronto, establish specialized brain training as a potentially powerful strategy to prevent Alzheimer’s Disease and other afflictions, including normal aging, that sap memory and reduce function.

With 76 million baby boomers reaching the age of maximum vulnerability to Alzheimer’s and with no effective treatments available to alter the disease’s progression, researchers are keen to find ways to prevent or delay the onset of the memory-robbing disease. The new research suggests that even years after it is administered, an inexpensive intervention without unwanted side effects might forestall dementia symptoms.

The latest results emerged from a 10-year study that compared the effects of three forms of brain training in a group of 2,802 cognitively healthy seniors. The ACTIVE study — short for Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly — was funded by the National Institute on Aging.

A quarter of the participants, who had an average age of 73.4 at the study’s start, got no training at all. The remaining participants were divided into three groups, and over five weeks, each group got 10 hour-long training sessions. One group got a classroom-based course designed to impart strategies aimed at boosting memory; a second got a classroom-based course designed to sharpen participants’ reasoning skills.


http://www.latimes.com/science/scienc ... -20160724-snap-story.html

Posted on: 2016/7/24 22:26
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Hotel Deals
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Hotel Deals


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Posted on: 2016/7/24 22:17
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Lady Jokes Of The Day
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Fancy Jewellery Store

A lady walks into a fancy jewellery store.

She browses around, spots a beautiful diamond bracelet and walks over to inspect it.

As she bends over to look more closely she inadvertently breaks wind.

Very embarrassed, she looks around nervously to see if anyone has noticed her little accident and prays that a sales person doesn't pop up right now.

As she turns around, her worst nightmare materializes in the form of a salesman standing right behind her.

Cool as a cucumber and displaying complete professionalism, the salesman greets the lady with,

"Good day, Madam How may we help you today?"

Very uncomfortably, but hoping that the salesman may not have been there at the time of her little "accident!" she asks,

"Sir, what is the price of this lovely bracelet?" He answers,

"Madam, if you farted just looking at it, you're going to #OOPS# when I tell you the price."

Posted on: 2016/7/22 0:57
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US Family-Based Immigrant Visas - How Long Does it Take?
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US Family-Based Immigrant Visas - How Long Does it Take?

Family preference immigrant visa cases take additional time because they are in numerically limited visa categories. The length of time varies from case to case and cannot be predicted for individual cases with any accuracy. Some cases are delayed because applicants do not follow instructions carefully. Some visa applications require further administrative processing, which takes additional time after the consular officer interviews the applicant.

Posted on: 2016/7/17 21:52
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Progress DBA ADMIN - Relative-path Databases
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Progress DBA ADMIN - Relative-path Databases



Relative-path databases are the simplest form of Version 9 databases. They contain most of the
properties associated with pre-Version 9 (single volume) databases, in that they are made up of
a minimum number of files and can be copied with OS commands. A relative-path database
stores all extents associated with the database in the same directory as the control area. The
control area contains relative paths to all the extents. You would use a relative-path database in
the following situations:
• When the database needs to be opened across a network for demonstration purposes
• When the database needs to be copied with OS tools, as when installing a demonstration
database
• When the database is the master database to be associated with a new application

Posted on: 2016/7/17 21:48
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What Can We Do With A Degree In Biopharmaceuticals?
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Biopharmaceuticals generally indicates the research achievements based on applications of microbiology, biology, medicine and biochemistry. Market research in biological and biochemical products also shows it’s necessary to use the principles or methods of pharmaceuticals to discover more effective products that can be used for the prevention, treatment and diagnosis, namely the research from an organism, biological tissues, and cells to the body fluids.

Technically, pharmaceutical industry is one of the international industrial divisions in accordance with international standards, also called “a sunshine industry that will never decline”. It includes pharmaceutical industry and medicine business like Tumor Antigen-derived Peptides, in which the pharmaceutical industry can be divided into chemical, biological, and medical device industries. Since pharmaceuticals is usually regarded as an emerging industry, how about its employment situation? Will it be as vibrant as biopharmaceutical industry?

Although biopharmaceuticals possesses relatively good prospects for development, but it is currently limited to special experiment equipment as well as the deficiency in development of corresponding products like copper. Therefore, the employment may be more difficult, so most students would choose further education, studying for a higher degree like Ph.D. and M.S..

Any ideas?

Posted on: 2016/7/14 4:47

Edited by Admin on 2016/7/16 20:06:36
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Top 5 Bay Area Biomed Hot Spots
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Top 5 Bay Area Biomed Hot Spots

Top 5 Biomed Hot Spots in the Bay Area


HOT SPOTS EXAMPLE COMPANY EXAMPLE JOBS MEDIAN SALARY (BLS 2015)

Fremont MyoScience Sr. Quality Engineer $83,470


Sunnyvale St. Jude Medical Clinical Research Associate II $82,240

San Jose Stryker Regulatory Affairs Analyst $65,640


San Francisco Twist Bioscience Research Scientist, Molecular Biology $67,550


Berkeley Dynavax Quality GCP Compliance Mgr. $65,640

Posted on: 2016/7/12 19:13
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Thinking About Buying? Here’s The Real Cost to Own a Home
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Thinking About Buying? Here’s The Real Cost to Own a Home

Owning a home means you can blow out a wall to create a more spacious kitchen or paint your bedroom a flaming fuchsia — things that are certainly deposit-forfeiting and likely eviction-motivating offenses in rental land. Let’s say you want to buy your own place, but you want to know if it’s really a good idea for you right now. When the buy-vs.-rent issue comes up, consider the basics first and then drill down.

Adding up the Costs of Homeownership

The basics begin with your monthly payment. To make it an apples-to-apples comparison, you’ll need to compare your rent payment to monthly homeownership costs. Because those include more than just the principal and interest portion of a mortgage payment, typical mortgage payment calculators can be a bit misleading.

You also need to estimate property taxes and homeowners insurance, as well as other potential costs. These can include private mortgage insurance, homeowner association dues and condo or common community fees.

Other costs to factor in include:

Loan closing costs, which typically amount to three percent to five percent of the value of your loan. This covers everything from a professional appraisal to a home inspection, as well as lender fees.
Costs for utilities, yard care and painting or other upgrades (in other words, all of the stuff the landlord usually takes care of when you rent).
Maintenance and repairs, which homeowners can expect to total one percent to two percent of their mortgage costs annually. There will be surprise expenses too, so it’s a good idea to earmark a portion of your savings for a household emergency repair fund — in addition to your day-to-day emergency fund.

Where You Live Makes a Big Difference

The real cost of homeownership (and renting, as well) stems from where you live — not just the state or the city, but the neighborhood. And it’s not only about the cost of real estate and being able to afford the rent or the mortgage; it’s also about commuting and other transportation costs.

Most Americans spend about half their income on housing and transportation, according to the Department of Housing and Urban Development, which developed a Location Affordability Index tool. It lets you pinpoint virtually any location in the U.S. and get a real sense of what it costs to live there, considering median income as well as housing and transportation costs. You can even compare the difference in the total costs of owning or renting in a locale, with results that might surprise you.
When to Rent and When to Own

Other considerations in the rent-or-own decision go beyond just minding your money.

Reasons to continue renting can include:

Mobility: Do you need to be able to move to a new city for career advancement?
Flexibility: Buying a home means committing to a neighborhood, possibly for several years. Being able to walk to your favorite coffee shop or happy hour club may mean a lot to you now. But later, if you start a family, you’ll care about school districts more than drink specials.
Uncertainty: Price appreciation can be elusive and dependent on your local real estate market. Home equity is never guaranteed, particularly over the short term. It’s probably a good idea to forget the old “your home is an investment” thing.

However, good reasons to buy might be:

Tax deductions: Discount points, mortgage interest and property tax — the more you earn, the more these tax breaks are worth.
A historic opportunity: Mortgage rates are very low. One day, we may look back on these low-interest days fondly: “Remember when rates were below 4%?”
Help entering the market: A 20 percent down payment doesn’t have to break the deal. These days, there are ways to put down less, especially for first-time homebuyers. And saving up a down payment may be easier if you follow some savings hacks.
Price appreciation: After you buy, you’ll ultimately sell. And net proceeds of a sale are typically not taxed, with a capital gains exclusion of $250,000 — or $500,000 if you’re married and file jointly.

The Bottom Line

The real cost to own a home can be eye-opening — but the fact is, these days renting is less of a bargain than ever. Considering all of the financial and life-stage factors involved can help you quantify whether now is the time to buy, or whether you should keep on renting.

Posted on: 2016/7/12 19:00
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Re: Can you please tell me what is API testing.?
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API test is the same with other tests. The first step is to build a test environment. All kinds of necessary configuration files are ready to complete before the start of testing procedures to ensure that the server is available.

Posted on: 2016/7/4 3:11
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